For more resources for communities,
see the co-intelligence community page
Below is a list of processes that can increase the capacity of communities
to respond intelligently to the changing environment around them,
including crises. Most of these processes are on the leading edge
of organizational development, group work and community organizing.
These were chosen because guidance -- written material, expertise,
training, or replicable models -- exists for each of these methods,
for people who wish to put them into practice. Most of these methods
are quite simple (although not always EASY) to do, and are therefore
good grassroots tools. This also makes them easier to communicate
and implement in cases where they are being initiated from the top.
The impact of many of these processes can be greatly broadened and
deepened by a number of factors, three of which I've listed here:
a) Servant Leadership. Often the initiative for
processes such as these in communties comes from the bottom, the
grassroots. In such instances, while the benefits for those involved
tends to be great, participation tends to be limited to relatively
small groups, resulting in minimal benefits for the community or
society as a whole. On the other hand, where there is active cooperation
or initiative by the government and media -- promoting the activity,
reaching out to seldom-engaged populations, providing space and
other resources, reporting on what happened, encouraging follow-up,
etc. -- there is a dramatic improvement in community expectations,
community participation, and community follow-up (of both further
dialogue and deliberation, and actual actions taken by citizens
and officials). Another dimension of servant leadership that we
should keep in mind, especially when the initiative comes from the
top -- is that these processes must serve to empower -- rather than
to control -- the participants and their community. Otherwise they
will fail or backfire.
b) Regularity - A good process done continually
or at periodic intervals over time has a tendency to generate positive
effects far beyond its use in a single event. It becomes part of
the culture of those using it, weaving itself into their assumptions,
interactions, and expectations. A familiar example is voting. A
one-time election for a leader would be better than no election
for a leader. But when a society has elections every 2-4 years,
that nurtures the idea that the leaders are answerable to the electorate.
(Even when, as happens in our society, powerholders find loopholes
in the electoral system that reduce the actual power of
citizens. There remains the assumption that the citizenry
SHOULD be powerful). Furthermore, people become habituated to elections
and use this method in other areas of their lives, such as their
voluntary associations (clubs, community groups, etc.). In the vast
majority of cases below, a group, community or society would benefit
greatly by practicing the method regularly and incorporating it
into the normal rhythms of their collective life. By using them
as an event, we empower individuals and groups. By using them as
a process, we empower whole communities and societies.
c) Complementarity - Each one of these processes
has a power of its own. Those who advocate it tend to focus on that
power. Far rarer are those who see opportunities to use such processes
together in some synergistic way. To return to our previous example:
voting is powerful and so is a free press. Either could
exist without the other. Their combination is far more
powerful (and empowering) than either of them could be without the
other. Hopefully at least some community leaders will recognize
this and weave a number of the tools below into patterns that will
enhance the overall efficacy of each one. For more about this subject,
see Designing Multi-Process Public
Participation Programs or The Change Handbook by Peggy
Holman et al (esp the fall 2006 version that has almost 60 processes).
Anyone combining servant leadership, regularity and complementarity
into an ongoing community involvement program using a number of
these tools will have transformed the system in which they operate
into a highly evolved form of democracy seldom seen before.
(Note: For issues and criteria related
to public participation,
of Public Participation.)
I have sorted these methods into a number of categories, depending
on what each process is particularly good for, but many of them,
such as Open Space and World Cafe, have a broad range of uses.
For national, state or large community citizen deliberation and
1. Citizen Deliberative
Councils - A random or demographically representative group
of 12-24 citizens convened to study an issue (sometimes questioning
expert witnesses) and produce policy recommendations. All of the
several varieties are professionally facilitated to a consensus
or supermajority statement that is formally presented to media and/or
officials, sometimes in a public forum. Citizen deliberative councils
are possibly the most powerful of the well-tested methods of democratic
Issues Forums - The most widely used form of citizen
deliberation in the US, National Issues Forums of all sizes are
held to study public issues using a set of issue books published
by the National Issues Forums organization each year. Every issue
is explored from 3-5 approaches, with the underlying arguments,
evidence, and values clarifiied, inviting participants to recognize
the legitimacy of other views and to do together the difficult "choice
work" regarding the trade-offs of different approaches. Participants
views are summarized for public officials and the media, and participating
organizations influence the next year's topics.
For community self-organization and problem solving
3. Open Space Technology
- A self-organized conference about a topic about which all
attendees have passion. After an initial briefing, attendees create
workshops, discussion groups or task groups according to their interests.
Attendees are encouraged to let go of outcomes, welcome the unexpected,
and move around to find sessions where they can actively learn or
contribute. Open Space allows otherwise hidden issues to emerge
and get dealt with, and ensures that any topic raised will have
someone to deal with it.
collaborations - people from government, business,
civic groups, non-profits, the media, utilities, religious institutions,
and so on, come together to work on a shared problem. These are
stakeholder-based, rather than citizen-based forms. Three specific
- Future Search Conferences
- Multi-sector collaborative events involving 30-64 stakeholders
-- a cross-section of the community plus a few important outsiders
-- who explore and record their shared past and the forces at
work in their collective lives, and then imagine desirable futures
and how to get there. Differences are acknowledged and set aside,
and work groups formed to pursue desired futures.
councils - Ongoing deliberative processes engaging
a variety of stakeholders in an effort to collectively steward
the health of their watershed. They are often convened by local
Councils - Months- or years-long facilitated councils
usually convened by legislatures to seek consensus solutions to
controversial issues facing legislation.
Projects - Citizens go door to door asking significant,
open-ended, engaging questions about an issue that concerns them
and accepting whatever the person says. It might look like a poll,
but the object is consciousness raising, relationship-building,
and engagement -- not public opinion monitoring. People interviewed
often find their views expanding and some even get actively involved
in addressing the issue.
Community Development (ABCD) - Citizens discover, map
and mobilize assets hidden away in all the folks who live in their
community, as well as in associations and formal institutions, and
bring those resources out of the closet and into creative synergy
with each other, with dramatic results. Asset-based community development
reaches beyond problem-solving and avoids paternalism and dependence.
It can be supported by all parts of the political spectrum and initiated
at any level of civic life.
For group/community reflection and "issue exploration"
7. Listening circles
(a.k.a., talking circles, council, wisdom circles, etc.) - Adapted
from tribal council circles. Participants' communication is mediated
by a held object which is passed around the circle. Whoever holds
it "speaks their truth from the heart.". There is no cross-talk
or discussion. In one variation (often called "popcorn")
the object is passed to whomever wishes to speak next, rather than
aorund the circle.
8. Dialogue is shared
exploration towards greater understanding, connection, or possibility.
Many forms of communication fit this definition. And many forms
don't, including arguments, debates, posturing, holding forth, defensiveness,
bantering discussions and other forms of communication where we
don't discover anything new or connect with each other. Dialogue's
spirit of exploration is useful when we want to understand something
or someone better. Dialogue is often needed to reach sufficient
shared understanding to come to a decision together. Dialogue is
often guided by a set of agreements and many dialogue guides and
guidelines are available online.
9. The World Cafe
Groups of 4-8 people sit around circular tables (ideally with flowers,
candles, paper tablecloths and marking pens as in a real cafe) exploring
well-crafted questions on a topic that deeply matters to them. The
conversation is broken into rounds of 20-60 minutes, with participants
mixing to other tables for each round, and coming togeher at the
end to harvest insights. In this process, groups of dozens or thousands
can experience the intimacy and engagement of small group dialogue
along with the diverse views, broader understandings and connection
provided by large group conversation.
10. Study Circles
are voluntary, self-organizing adult education groups of 5-20 people
who meet three to six times to study and discuss a subject, often
a critical social issue. Between meetings participants read materials
to stimulate their next meeting's dialogue. The materials are usually
compiled by the sponsor or organizer of the particular study circle;
but groups who want to form a study circle on a particular topic
can create their own materials or get ready-to-use packs from national
11. Scenario and Visioning
XI ) Scenario and Visioning
For group decision-making
Allan Savory's step by step process for holistic decision-making.
· consensus (including color-coded
straw polls) (distinguish from unanimity)
· strong majority (66%, 75%, 80%)
For conflict work / exploration of differences
· dynamic dialogue
· Widening Circles exercise
Process Worldwork (Arny
· conflict exploration circles
· dynamic facilitation
· values barometer
· mediated dialogue - see Search
for Common Ground which gets people on opposite sides of a polarized
issue to debate each other -- but with a twist: they have to "mirror"
back to each other what the other said before they can reply. While
clarifying their differences, they discover they share a lot more
than they thought -- and sometimes come up with projects to do together!
· Nonviolent Communication
· alternative dispute resolution (ADR) and negotiation
For emotional processing/sharing
(see also listening circles and nonviolent communication, above)
· open sentences practice
- Joanna Macy
· Despair and Empowerment
· story sharing
(see also listening circle and scrip circle)
· reverse agenda
· dynamic facilitation
· positive, negative, interesting (deBono)
· chime and stone
· Gestures of Conversational
Community resilience, economic and material methods
· Local complementary currencies
and Other Energy Efficient Cooking Methods"
· Etc. (this could be LONG)
· Commitment chunks (people commit to 3-4 meetings/weeks/blocks
and then review how it was)
- Creating Community Anywhere by Carolyn Shaffer
and Kristin Anundsen (Tarcher/Perigree, 1993). "The most
comprehensive book I know of about the community movement."
-- M. Scott Peck. Building community with friends, family, support
groups, neighborhoods, co-workers, cyber-companions, shared households
and visionary communities. Excellent guidance on conflict, decision-making,
celebrations, communication and dealing with community evolution
and "shadow side."
- The Fifth Discipline by Peter Senge (Doubleday
Currency, 1990). This book introduced the world to the idea of
an organization that can learn. It was followed by the The
Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, et. al. (Doubleday
Currency, 1994), jam-packed with strategies, tools and exercises
to help us build such organizations.
- Future Search by Marvin Weisbord and Sandra Janoff
(Berrett-Koehler, 1995). A how-to book for finding common ground
and co-creating the future of organizations and communities. http://www.futuresearch.net/
- Complexity by M. Waldrop (Simon & Schuster,
1992). This book opened my eyes to the way nature generates totally
new phenomena through the co-evolution of complex synergies.
- Democracy and Technology by Richard Sclove (Guildford,
1995). Shows how technologies support and undermine democracy,
and asks: "What role should democracy have in the development
of technology?" http://www.loka.org/
- The Ecology of Commerce by Paul Hawken (HarperBusiness,
1993). How an economy world work that fully collaborated with
- Shifting by Paul Krapfel ($12.50 from 18080 Brincat
Manor Dr., Cottonwood, CA 96022). Engaging examples of nature
dancing entropy into life, and how we humans can join that dance.
His updated, nicer, more expensive version is Seeing Nature:
Deliberate encounters with the visible world (Chelsea Green,
1999) which is available from bookstores. http://www.krafel.net
- Who Do You Think You Are? by Keith Harary and Eileen
Donahue. (HarperSF, 1994). How to use The Berkeley Personality
Profile, which explores human differences without "typing"
- The Three Faces of Mind by Elaine de Beauport (Quest,
1996). An integrated theory of multi-modal intelligence based
on the functions of the three parts of the human brain.
- Frames of Mind by Howard Gardner (Basic Books,
1993). The first fully-researched theory of multiple intelligences
that opened the door to expanded views of intelligence.
- Open Space Technology by Harrison Owen (Berrett-Koehler,
1997). The how-to manual for one of the simplest, most powerful
self-organized collective processes we have. http://www.tmn.com/openspace
- Facilitators Guide to Participatory Decision-Making
by Sam Kaner, et al. (New Society, 1996). A brilliant,
very understandable guide to facilitated consensus process, organized
so that pieces can be copied and used by the group.
- Dialogue: Rediscovering the Transforming Power of Conversation
by Linda Ellinor and Glenna Gerard (J. Wiley and Sons, 1998).
- The Joy of Conversation by Jaida N'ha Sandra (Utne,
1997). The Utne Reader-sponsored guide to co-creative
salons of all types. Excellent writeups on study circles, listening
circles, etc. http://www.utne.com
- Study Circles by Len Oliver (Seven Locks, 1987).
The history and practice of small-group, democratic, adult education
and social learning. http://www.studycircles.org
- The Quickening of America by Frances Moore Lappé
and Paul Du Bois (Jossey-Bass, 1994). Powerful examples and new
theory about how Americans are "doing democracy." http://www.livingdemocracy.org/
- The Leader as Martial Artist by Arnold Mindell
(HarperSF, 1992). The Aikido of conflict resolution, relationship
- The Aquarian Conspiracy by Marilyn Ferguson (Tarcher,1980).
The book on the holistic "new paradigm" revolution which
laid the groundwork for co-intelligence.
- Necessary Wisdom by Charles Johnston (ICD Press,
POB 85631, Seattle, WA 98145; 1991). The dance of opposites into
creative co-evolution; building living bridges between us, where
we come alive together.
- Confessions of Empowering Organizations. by Redburn,
Ray, et al. (Association for Quality and Participation,
1991). 92 case studies of partnership and empowerment, self-managed
work crews, self-directed reorganizations -- with names and phone
- Leadership and the New Science by Margaret Wheatley
(Berrett-Koelher, 1992). How to relate to organizations as natural
- Transforming Human Culture by Jay Earley (SUNY,
1997). Tracking the evolution of integral culture from prehistory
into the 21st Century. http://www.earley.org
- Getting to Yes by Roger Fisher and Willima Ury
(Penguin, 1981). The classic introduction to principled negotiation.
(See review of Roger Fisher's books
by Rowan Smith and William Ury's GETTING
- Reworking Success by Robert Theobald (New Society,
1997). An accessible re-examination of how to make communities
and societies work better in the 21st Century. http://www.resilientcommunities.org
- Heart Politics by Fran Peavey (New Society, 1986).
One of the most creative inquiries into what it means to live
a life trying to change things for the better, sensitive to the
interconnectedness, mystery, beauty and quirkiness of life.
- Building Communities from the Inside Out: A Path Toward
Finding and Mobilizing a Community's Assets by John P.
Kretzmann and John L. McKnight (Center for Urban Affairs and Policy
Research, 1993; $15 from ACTA Publications  397-2282) http://www.nwu.edu/IPR/abcd.html
- The Spirit of Community: The Reinvention of American Society
by Amitai Etzioni (Touchstone/Simon & Schuster, 1993). The
kick-off of the communitarian movement.
- The Power in our Hands: Neighborhood-Based World Shaking
by Tony Gibson (Jon Carpenter, UK,1996). How-tos and stories for
those who want to make a creative difference in their communities.
- Going Local: Creating Self-Reliant Communities in a Global
Age by Michael H. Shuman (The Free Press, 1998). The title
- Self-Reliant Cities by David Morris (Sierra Club Books,1982).
The classic visionary text on the relationships of American cities
to energy. This and many other books on that topic can be found
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