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Multiple-Approach Studies and Method Compilations

The most comprehensive lists of group and community processes we've found so far

The National Coalition for Dialogue and Deliberation's favorite methodologies
20+ basic methodologies, well described

Co-Intelligent Practices, Approaches, Processes and Organizations
Tom Atlee's original list of over 30 approaches to facilitate co-intelligence

"Designing Multi-Process Public Participation Programs"
A number of approaches to integrating multiple processes together into coherent community programs. Processes mentioned in this article are described briefly on "Approaches to Community Engagement and the Generation of Community Wisdom" which contains about 50 processes.

Multi-Stakeholder Resource Portal
Building Capacity to Facilitate Multi-Stakeholder Processes and Social Learning -- including methodologies, process tools, and facilitation manuals.

"Ideas for Community Consultation" by Dr. Lyn Carson and Dr. Katharine Gelber
Discussion of principles for making consultation work, plus seven specific methods. (PDF)

Center for Community Support and Research - Wichita State University
Many know-how resources for communities.

Alliance for Regional Stewardship's "Empowering Regions: Strategies and Tools for Community Decision Making"
Excellent discussion of categories of tools (rather than specific tools), including case studies. Includes Information Tools, Visualization Tools, Impact Analysis Tools, GIS and Modeling Techniques and Community Process Tools. (PDF)

A Call to Move Beyond Public Opinion to Public Judgment
Includes dozens of processes in categories, with links.


BOOKS describing many processes include:

Tom Atlee: THE TAO OF DEMOCRACY: USING CO-INTELLIGENCE TO CREATE A WORLD THAT WORKS FOR ALL. Describes and links hundreds of approaches to co-intelligence.

Peggy Holman, Tom Devane and Steven Cady (eds): THE CHANGE HANDBOOK: THE DEFINITIVE RESOURCE ON TODAY'S BEST METHODS FOR ENGAGING WHOLE SYSTEMS. Describes and compares 61 methods used in organizational and community work. Includes chapters on underlying dynamics, commonalities, choosing processes, and the future of this field.

Ortwin Renn et al. (eds): FAIRNESS AND COMPETENCE IN CITIZEN PARTICIPATION: EVALUATING MODELS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DISCOURSE. Includes detailed descriptions and critiques of 8 leading environmental participation methods.

Archon Fung and Erik Olin Wright: DEEPENING DEMOCRACY: INSTITUTIONAL INNOVATIONS IN EMPOWERED PARTICIPATORY GOVERNANCE. Describes in great detail several inspiring major participation initiatives around the world. Includes critiques.

Lyn Carson and Brian Martin: RANDOM SELECTION IN POLITICS has an appendix briefly describing 43 approaches. The main text has more detailed descriptions of a number of models that use random selection, such as citizen juries.


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